Near real-time continuous monitoring systems have been proposed as a promising approach for enhancing drinking water utilities detect and respond efficiently to threats on water distribution systems. Water quality sensors are aimed at revealing contamination intrusions, while hydraulic pressure and flow sensors are utilized for estimating the hydraulic system state. To date optimization models for placing sensors in water distribution systems are targeting separately water quality and hydraulic sensor network goals. Deploying two independent sensor networks within one distribution system is expensive to install and maintain. It might thus be beneficial to consider mutual sensor locations having dual hydraulic and water quality monitoring capabilities (i.e. sensor nodes which collect both hydraulic and water quality data at the same locations). In this study a multi-objective sensor network placement model for conjunctive monitoring of hydraulic and water quality data is developed and demonstrated using the multi-objective non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm NSGA II methodology. Two water distribution systems of increasing complexity are explored showing tradeoffs between hydraulic and water quality sensor location objectives. The proposed method provides a new tool for sensor placements.
Multi-objective optimization for conjunctive placement of hydraulic and water quality sensors in water distribution systems
Ami Preis, Andrew Whittle, Avi Ostfeld; Multi-objective optimization for conjunctive placement of hydraulic and water quality sensors in water distribution systems. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 April 2011; 11 (2): 166–171. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2011.029
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