This study was carried out to investigate the distribution of selected elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sr, Li, Mn, Co, Cr, Cd and Pb) and physicochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and total alkalinity) in the freshwater of Simly Lake, Pakistan. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to study the apportionment of elements in the water samples, while their suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes were also assessed. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) revealed considerable anthropogenic contributions of the elements in water samples. Average levels of Cd, Co, Cr and Pb in the waters were significantly higher than national and international standards. In order to ascertain the potential health risk of heavy metal contents to the local population, non-carcinogenic health risk assessment was evaluated in terms of exposure assessment (Exping/derm) and hazard quotient (HQing/derm) which demonstrated that the measured levels of Cd, Co, Cr and Pb were higher than the safety limit, thus indicating adverse health effects associated with the consumption of the lake water.

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