The development of water recycling schemes in Australia has, in recent years, undergone a maturity characterised by some emerging trends in the paradigm of water reuse and its integration into the overall water supply strategies for large urban and peri-urban areas. This paper looks at case studies within the context of these observed trends and discusses the institutional frameworks as well as some technical aspects of the case studies to illustrate the trends. Comparison is made with some selected international examples to develop a better understanding of these recent Australian developments within the international context. While not a complete inventory of the many recent recycling schemes in Australia, the paper examines these emerging trends within the context of the growing number of larger-scale industrial, agricultural and dual reticulation urban recycled water systems in Australia and the trend to decentralised recycling schemes.

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