Daily total water consumption per capita has been used as a basic unit for the future planning of water supply for domestic use. However, for innovative water utilization designs that consider various scenarios, including the effects of policy direction and global warming, and more strategic and efficient water use, it is absolutely essential to consider water usage divided by residential activities, such as toilet flushing, cooking, clothes washing, and bathing. We collected micro-component data by direct measurement from each household outlet, and developed small accumulative meters. Measurements were conducted at 56 households for 2 months in Hanoi, Vietnam, and the average consumption was 18.6 L/p/d for toilet, 16.2 L/p/d for laundry, 10.4 L/p/d for bath, and 15.7 L/p/d for kitchen. We then analyzed the representative values and the distribution of water consumption for every usage from social and economic perspectives. In addition, we compared the results in Hanoi with those in Chiang Mai, Thailand, where we investigated water consumption a few years ago, and their value seemed similar except for bathroom use, but the substance was different. One distinct outcome of our investigation was the recognition of the cultural and methodological challenges to end-use assessment of water consumption in modernizing Asian communities.
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Research Article| March 01 2013
Micro-component survey of residential water consumption in Hanoi
P. N. Bao;
T. T. V. Nga;
Y. Otaki, M. Otaki, P. N. Bao, T. T. V. Nga, T. Aramaki; Micro-component survey of residential water consumption in Hanoi. Water Supply 1 March 2013; 13 (2): 469–478. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2013.029
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