In this paper removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its fractions by chemical coagulation was studied. Raw water was collected from the Red River (Manitoba, Canada). This source water has a DOC concentration ranging from 8 to 12 mg L−1 and total hardness of about 400 mg L−1 CaCO3, which represents a typical surface water quality of the Canadian Prairie. Four coagulants were tested at different pH levels: alum, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride and titanium sulfate. Coagulation effectiveness was evaluated by removal of DOC, DOC fractions, specific UV absorbance (SUVA), and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of the coagulated water. The water DOC was separated into six fractions based on hydrophobicity and acid base functionality: hydrophobic acid (HPOA), hydrophobic base (HPOB), hydrophobic neutral (HPON), hydrophilic acid (HPIA), hydrophilic base (HPIB), and hydrophilic neutral (HPIN). Results showed that ferric sulfate had the highest total DOC removal of 66% while ferric chloride had the lowest DOC reduction of 54%. Although the THMFP was found to be lowered significantly with all four coagulants the ferric chloride showed the greatest THMFP reduction. Fractionation results found a significant reduction in the HPOA fraction for all coagulants with 91% for ferric chloride as the highest removal value. Poor removal of hydrophilic fractions was found for all coagulants. The result of this study showed that total DOC reduction cannot guarantee THMFP reduction and coagulation should be optimized to remove DOC fractions which form most THMs.
Removal of DOC and its fractions from surface waters of the Canadian Prairie containing high levels of DOC and hardness
Mehrnaz Sadrnourmohamadi, Charles D. Goss, Beata Gorczyca; Removal of DOC and its fractions from surface waters of the Canadian Prairie containing high levels of DOC and hardness. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 May 2013; 13 (3): 864–870. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2013.078
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