Ground water accounts for nearly 80% of the rural domestic water needs, and 50% of the urban water needs in India. Ground water gets contaminated because of anthropogenic activities. The incidence of fluoride and iron above permissible levels of 1.5 and 1 mg/L respectively occur in 14 Indian states. Various conventional methods are applied for removal of fluoride and iron but, in recent days owing to increasing eco-friendly alternatives like synthetic polymer resins are being considered. The study was focused on using polystyrene (PS) beads packed media for defluoridation and deironing of water. The removal efficiency of fluoride and iron by polystyrene beads (diameter 1.5, 4 and 8 mm) were determined for 1, 2, 3 and 4 L/min flow rates. For maximum flow rate 8 mm PS beads were efficient in reducing fluoride and iron by 94 and 90% respectively. Polystyrene beads proved to be efficient in removal of fluoride and iron.
Defluoridation and deironing of ground water using polystyrene beads
M. Madhukar, R. S. Lavanya, M. B. Amrutha; Defluoridation and deironing of ground water using polystyrene beads. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 November 2013; 13 (6): 1507–1512. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2013.116
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