The proportion of total water loss that is due to leakages and bursts in a district metered area in the Baifikrom supply network in the Central region of Ghana was investigated using the minimum night flow method. Legitimate customer night use was estimated specifically for the study area based on social habits, active population at night and demographic characteristics of two categories of night-time users identified – water closet users and ventilated improved pits users. It was estimated that 12% of the daily supply volume was lost through leakage indicating that apparent losses constitute 28%. This suggests that the water utility has to investigate the components of apparent losses and plan measures to reduce them in addition to reducing leakage.
Leakage estimation in water networks based on two categories of night-time users: a case study of a developing country network
P. K. Amoatey, R. Minke, H. Steinmetz; Leakage estimation in water networks based on two categories of night-time users: a case study of a developing country network. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 April 2014; 14 (2): 329–336. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2013.201
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