The problem of bursts and leakages in water distribution systems has received significantly increased attention over the past two decades. As they represent both an environmental and an economical issue, how to reduce water loss through bursts and leakages is a challenging task for water utilities. Consequently, various techniques have been developed to detect the location and size of leakages. The methods for bursts (or leaks) detection and location can be broadly divided into two main categories, one based on hardware and the other based on software. Hardware-based methods include (i) acoustic detection methods such as listening rods, leak correlators, leak noise loggers and (ii) non-acoustic detection methods such as gas injection, ground penetrating radar technology and infrared photography. Software-based methods make use of the data collected by real-time pressure and/or flow sensors and several artificial intelligence techniques and statistical data analysis tools, including (i) methods based on numerical modeling methods, such as inverse transient analysis, time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis, and (ii) some non-numerical modeling methods, such as artificial neural networks, Bayesian inference systems, the Golden section method, and Kalman filtering. In this article, the authors describe the methods for pipe network burst location and detection, summarize the features of each method, and propose a suggestion for future work.
A review of methods for burst/leakage detection and location in water distribution systems
Rui Li, Haidong Huang, Kunlun Xin, Tao Tao; A review of methods for burst/leakage detection and location in water distribution systems. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 June 2015; 15 (3): 429–441. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2014.131
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