Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal water balances and its implementation as a software tool. The approach is demonstrated for the practical case of the Pforzheim water utility (Stadtwerke Pforzheim GmbH & Co. KG).
Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems
Philipp Klingel, Axel Knobloch; Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 December 2015; 15 (6): 1414–1424. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2015.103
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