A simulation apparatus of in-situ groundwater remediation (SAIR) that used maize stalks pretreated with sodium hydroxide (MSSH) as a carbon source was designed for nitrate-contaminated groundwater treatment. Two experiments, RA and RB, were constructed in this SAIR. The removal performance of SAIR fed with real nitrate contaminated water was investigated under static and dynamic conditions. In the static remediation experiment, good removal efficiency (>95% for nitrate, 89% for total nitrogen) was observed in both experiments. However, nitrate removal efficiency did not differ greatly between RA and RB at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 d. Overall, these results indicate that MSSH has potential for use as an alternative carbon source for denitrification.

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