A simple and inexpensive water purification method was developed using natural coagulant (Moringa seed powder) and antibacterial agents (scallop powder) followed by bio-sand filtration. In this study, surface water from different sources (e.g. pond, canal, lake and river) treated with combined Moringa seed powder, and scallop powder (MOSP) at a ratio of 2:1 for 10 minutes showed a clear water layer at the top and a sediment layer at the bottom. The clear water was then passed through an eight-fold sari cloth and/or natural bio-sand filtration and the resulting water was found drinkable. The microbiological and physico-chemical quality of this water showed non-significant differences compared to the US EPA drinking water quality parameters. Moreover, no cytotoxic effect of MOSP with BHK-21 and HeLa cells, nor any bacterial endotoxins were observed, indicating use of MOSP does not pose any adverse health effect. Furthermore, the quality of 6 months stored water at room temperature was found acceptable, indicating the usefulness of this technology for drinking water purposes. On the other hand, the sediment or sludge produced in this process could be used in agricultural fields after proper composting. Therefore, this simple, inexpensive and ecofriendly method could be used in drinking water scarcity areas of the world.
Low cost and sustainable surface water purification methods using Moringa seeds and scallop powder followed by bio-sand filtration
Sharmin Zaman, Anowara Begum, K. S. Rabbani, Latiful Bari; Low cost and sustainable surface water purification methods using Moringa seeds and scallop powder followed by bio-sand filtration. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 February 2017; 17 (1): 125–137. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.111
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