Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of in-stream, in-pipe water quality, and alert of threats from waste loads. Legislation mandating the establishment of water resources monitoring, presence of hazardous contaminants in effluents, and perception of the vulnerability of the water distribution system to attacks, have spurred technical and economic interest. Alternatively to traditional analyzers, chemosensors operate according to physical principles, without sample collection (online), and are capable of supplying parameter values continuously and in real-time. This review paper contains a comprehensive survey of existing and expected online monitoring technologies for measurement/detection of pollutants in water. The state-of-the-art in online water monitoring and contaminant warning systems is presented. Application examples are reported. Monitoring costs will become a lesser part of a water utility budget due to the fact that automation and technological simplification will abate human cost factors, and reduce the complexity of laboratory procedures.

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