Sikkim is one of the constituent states of India, endowed with huge water resources. However, due to steep terrain and non availability of a groundwater aquifer, water conservation is a challenge. The water received as rainfall drains away through the steep terrain in the deep valleys, thereby creating a water stress after withdrawal of the monsoon. To overcome such a situation, a study was undertaken to design a suitable rain water harvesting system for the state. To design a suitable water harvesting system, we estimated the water demand of the end users, assessed the water availability during the non-rainy period, and designed the volume of storage structure. The study revealed that more than 80% of the respondents experienced water stress during the period from December to March. The average daily water demand of individual households was observed to be around 400 litres. The rainfall pattern indicated that 90% of the rainfall is concentrated during 6 rainy months. On average, 24 consecutive dry days were observed in the state. The volume of storage structure obtained, based on water availability and demand, was 5 m3 per household. It is felt that this volume can take care of the domestic water demand.
Combating water scarcity through roof water harvesting: planning and design with stakeholders' perception in Sikkim (India)
Bharat Chandra Kusre, P. K. Bora, Deependra Rai, Singam Suranjoy Singh, Aphiya Tana, Soshna Subba; Combating water scarcity through roof water harvesting: planning and design with stakeholders' perception in Sikkim (India). Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 May 2017; 17 (3): 799–810. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.180
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