Slow sand filtration (SSF) is a well-known process for drinking water treatment and is widely used for the production of biologically stable drinking water and particle removal. The removal process of particles and microorganisms is highly dependent on the buildup of the schmutzdecke at the filter surface. During the ripening period and especially for cold waters, the buildup of the schmutzdecke may take several months until such filters are biologically mature and at steady-state regarding their removal performance for particles and microorganisms. In order to improve the performance of SSF in terms of the removal of bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, pilot tests using natural bauxite as a filter media have been performed. The results showed a significant improvement in bacteria retention within the filter bed of a second-stage slow sand filter containing different depths of bauxite.
Research Article| December 15 2016
Use of bauxite for enhanced removal of bacteria in slow sand filters
Daniel Urfer; Use of bauxite for enhanced removal of bacteria in slow sand filters. Water Supply 1 July 2017; 17 (4): 1007–1015. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.199
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