Disinfection by-products are compounds occurring in drinking water as a result of reactions between disinfectants and impurities in raw water, and their occurrence has been a public health concern for the last four decades. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are one of the major by-products of chlorination. The concentration and variation of HAAs was monitored in 540 samples taken from tap water in six water and wastewater districts of Tehran, Iran. Seasonal variation indicated that natural organic matter and HAA levels were much higher in the spring and fall seasons. The concentrations of HAAs in drinking water samples varied with water sources. They were higher in drinking water obtained from surface water. In this study, the analysis method of human health risk assessment with regard to exposure to HAAs by drinking water in Tehran was based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline. It was found from these studies that the risk to human health appears to be negligible.
Risk assessment of haloacetic acids in the water supply of Tehran, Iran
Mahboobeh Ghoochani, Noushin Rastkari, Behzad Heibati, Mohammad Ghanbari Ghozikali, Maryam Zare Jeddi, John Fawell, Shahrokh Nazmara, Amir Hossein Mahvi; Risk assessment of haloacetic acids in the water supply of Tehran, Iran. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 July 2017; 17 (4): 958–965. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.189
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