Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect the formation and diffusion of disinfection by-products, especially trihalomethanes (THM), in a laboratory-scale water distribution network constructed with three different pipe materials. Sampling locations were chosen on the basis of residence time, pipe material and mixing zone. Water samples were collected and analyzed for temperature, pH, total organic carbon, turbidity, free chlorine and THM. Experiments were carried out where two different flow directions at cross junctions were studied. It was observed that for incoming flow at 90° with varying flow rate, mixing was shown to be incomplete where inflows tend to bifurcate rather than mix completely. For two incoming flows in opposing direction (180°), solute mixing has shown to be perfect due to the collision of the fluid streams. The results demonstrated how THM concentration can greatly vary in the same water distribution network due to the impact of pipe material, residence time and the outcome of mixing at cross junctions.

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