A two-dimensional simulated sand box was built to investigate the formation and remediation of an in-situ reactive zone (IRZ) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) for a nitrobenzene-contaminated aquifer, and the permeability change of the zone was calculated through the loss of waterhead. The experimental results demonstrated that the remediation area in coarse sand was obviously larger than that in fine sand. The nitrobenzene concentration reached a stable level of 87.24 and 170.24 mg/L in coarse and fine sand by 50 d and 40 d, respectively; after 60 d, the concentration of aniline as the reduction end-product of nitrobenzene was 97.02 and 49.40 mg/L, corresponding to a mean production rate of 40.1% and 20.8%, respectively. This indicated that a wider zone will be formed in the media with a larger size, which is beneficial for pollution remediation. The water yield of the aquifer declined by 13.8% and 11.9% in coarse and fine sand after 60 d, and the final permeability constant was 22.94 and 1.82 m/d (declining by 60.9% and 70.6%), respectively. The reactive zone remained stable and the injection of NZVI slurry could not cause any dramatic changes in the aquifer permeability.

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