The oasis of Moghrar is located in the wilaya (province) of Naama, in the southwest of Algeria. It is well known for its Ksours, its palm groves and the good quality of its fruit and vegetables, especially the dates and their varieties. This region contains important groundwater and surface water resources. For several centuries, domestic water supply and irrigation have been carried out using traditional techniques of water harvesting such as pendulum wells and foggaras. Currently, this hydraulic heritage is meeting technical and social problems, particularly with the contribution of drilling and motor-pumps. The main issues are water table drawdown, the drying-up of water sources and degradation and decay of traditional techniques. The objective of this study is to make an inventory of all water sources in the study area, to study the impact of the contribution of modern techniques on ancestral techniques and finally to propose recommendations for safeguarding the hydraulic heritage.