Pump stoppage can instantaneously increase the pressure within a pipeline, which is an extreme condition and poses a severe threat to the safety of long-distance water transmission projects. Reducing positive and negative pressures is essential to reducing this risk, improving operational efficiency, and avoiding system component fatigue. This study investigated the performance of a combination of dimensionless pump parameters and pipeline pressure in providing detailed information for designing protective equipment to mitigate water hammer effects, which are generated by sudden pump stoppage. The conditions of the method of characteristics were satisfied by conducting an overall transient flow analysis to estimate the potential of the increased pressure relevant to all types of operating schemes. Extreme pressure waves, produced by pump failure or rapid valve closure, can be prevented using efficient protective designs. The findings of this study can be instructive to alleviating the potential damage engendered by water hammer.

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