Several basins in Western Bohemia are regularly confronted with water scarcity problems during dry periods that have far-reaching impacts on stream ecology and the availability of drinking water for users. This paper presents a hydrological balance assessment of catchments in Western Bohemia for present and future conditions together with possible directions for climate change adaptation at the local scale. Assessment of climate change impacts on hydrological balance components using an ensemble of regional climate models revealed an increase in air temperature for all months during the year leading to an increase in evaporation. Along with changes in precipitation distribution during the year (increasing winter precipitation and decreasing summer precipitation), groundwater recharge and groundwater storage in general both decrease. Adaptation measures such as water transfers and the construction of water reservoirs are assessed with respect to the goal of increasing water availability in the Western Bohemia region during dry periods.