A novel wastewater treatment and reuse system (WTRS) combining an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) with the design capacity of 115 L/d was developed for a terrestrial-based controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Results clearly showed that the WTRS realized mineralization of organic compounds and reservation of nitrogenous nutrient, therefore converting the effluent into replenishment for the hydroponic system. Trace gas emission from the WTRS could meet requirements for the whole CELSS. Compared with physico-chemical processes, the specific consumables consumption of the WTRS was advantageous but its specific energy consumption is still in need of improvement. Results of microbial community analysis were consistent with the running state of the AnMBR and the MBR.