A piano key weir (PKW) is a new type of labyrinth weir that increases the unit discharge at the unregulated spillway inlet of the weir. It is considered to be an important structure in water supply and drainage systems. However, its complex geometry makes it difficult to achieve an optimal hydraulic design, and only a few design equations and criteria are available. This study investigates the discharge capacity of a PKW and evaluates the characteristics of its discharge using various sources of experimental data from a database. First, previously proposed discharge capacity formulas are summarized and analyzed. Then, a new formula that integrates the existing test data with the results of dimensional analysis and multiparameter optimization is proposed. The weir characteristics are evaluated using the proposed formula and a mathematical model. The results show that both the proposed formula and numerical model are promising approaches to evaluate the discharge capacity of an A-type PKW and can guide its design.

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