The balance between water supply and demand requires efficient water supply system management techniques. This balance is achieved through operational actions, many of which require the application of forecasting concepts and tools. In this article, recent research on urban water demand forecasting employing artificial intelligence is reviewed, aiming to present the ‘state of the art’ on the subject and provide some guidance regarding methods and models to research and professional sanitation companies. The review covers the models developed using standard statistical techniques, such as linear regression or time-series analysis, or techniques based on Soft Computing. This review shows that the studies are, mostly, focused on the management of the operating systems. There is, therefore, room for long-term forecasts. It is worth noting that there is no global model that surpasses all the methods for all cases, it being necessary to study each region separately, evaluating the strengths of each model or the combination of methods. The use of statistical applications of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence methodologies has grown considerably in recent years. However, there is still room for improvement with regard to water demand forecasting.

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