The study of surface water and groundwater (SGW) interaction can be used to improve water resource management. Herein, annual and monthly interactions in the Taoer River alluvial fan were calculated for the 1956–2014 period using the surface water balance method and the groundwater balance method, and a statistical model of interaction was obtained. The SGW interaction is shown in terms of the recharge of groundwater by surface water. From 1956 to 2014, the amount of SGW interaction in the study area varied greatly, averaging 27,848.4 × 104m3 annually. SGW interaction decreased gradually from the 1950s to the 1980s, and increased gradually from the 1980s to the present. During an individual year, SGW interaction increases gradually from January to July, peaking in July, and decreases gradually from August to December. An annual and a monthly multivariate regression statistical model were established. R2 was 0.697 for the annual model and 0.405 for the monthly model; the annual interaction model is more reliable. The model can be used to predict future trends in SGW interaction, which could be of great significance to the management of groundwater resources in the study area.