Effects of various alternative disinfectants, e.g. chlorine dioxide, ozone, ultraviolet radiation and chloramine, either alone or in combination with other physical treatments like sand filtration and membrane filtration, on the inactivation and removal of nematoda were studied. Ozone and chloramines were found to be effective for nematoda inactivation. Filtration alone was unable to remove nematoda completely. But the combination of UV radiation and sand filtration turned out to be very effective in the removal of nematoda from drinking water. 90% inactivation of nematoda needed a UV dose of (D10-value) 135 mJ/cm2, while 99% inactivation required 232.5 (135 + 97.5) mJ/cm2. This study was a part of a five-year national research project “Advanced Aqua Clean Technology for 21st Century” (ACT21).

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