Recent discoveries of the formation of low levels of the potent carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during wastewater chlorination has caused concern where indirect potable water reuse is practiced. Experiments indicate that nitrosamine formation during chlorination of wastewater is consistent with a reaction scheme involving the slow formation of a hydrazine intermediate from a secondary amine and monochloramine, followed by its rapid oxidation to the corresponding N-nitrosamine. A survey of precursors indicates that secondary amines form their corresponding N-nitrosamines to the greatest extent. However, molecules containing the secondary amine as a functional group can also form the corresponding N-nitrosamine. NDMA is the predominant N-nitrosamine found in chlorinated wastewater. However, other nitrosamines are detected. These N-nitrosamines may be important if the summed risk posed by the exposure to all N-nitrosamines is considered.
Research Article|July 01 2002
Factors controlling nitrosamine formation during wastewater chlorination
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply (2002) 2 (3): 191-198.
W.A. Mitch, D.L. Sedlak; Factors controlling nitrosamine formation during wastewater chlorination. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 July 2002; 2 (3): 191–198. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2002.0102
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