Chlorination batch experiments were conducted in order to estimate the concentration of THM and their formation potential in nitrified and partially nitrified secondary effluent. The role of contact time (up to 2 hours), chlorine dose (3 levels), pH and temperature on the formation of THM was evaluated. THM formation, as measured by individual concentration as well as formation potential, was high for the nitrified secondary effluent, while for the partially nitrified effluent the respective concentrations were low, due to the reaction of chlorine with ammonia to form chloramines. In general, THM concentrations progressively increased as contact time, pH and chlorine dose increased. Increase in temperature (from 15-25°C) showed a rather limited effect. In addition, coagulation tests were applied prior to chlorination of the nitrified effluent for removing organic carbon and thereby controlling the formation of THM. Alum was used as the coagulant in doses varying from 0.1 mM to 2.5 mM. As the coagulant dose increased, the removal of both DOC and absorbance at 254 nm increased, while THM formation decreased. The reduction in THM formation was more pronounced for coagulant doses higher than 1.5 mM.
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Research Article| July 01 2002
THM formation during chlorination of treated municipal wastewater
Water Supply (2002) 2 (3): 235–242.
E. Koukouraki, E. Diamadopoulos; THM formation during chlorination of treated municipal wastewater. Water Supply 1 July 2002; 2 (3): 235–242. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2002.0108
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