Two lead removal water filters were developed to lower lead levels in drinking water below 10 μg.L-1 in order to meet the new regulation given by the European Directive 98-83, applicable in December 2013. An appropriate adsorbent was selected through a stringent research program among a wide range of media, and is composed of a synthetic zeolite and an activated carbon. Two prototypes were developed: the first is a faucet-mounted filter which contains a fixed bed of the adsorbent and a hollow fiber bundle, while the second is an under-sink cartridge made of a porous extruded block of carbon and adsorbent. Both are able to treat at least 1,000 litres of any water containing on average 100 to 150 μg Pb.L-1, by lowering the lead concentration below 10 μg.L-1. Once their safety considerations were addressed by an independent laboratory according to the French Ministry of Health recommendations, 20 prototypes were installed at consumers' taps in northeastern France. Their performance in terms of lead removal, HPC control and bad taste and odor reduction was followed for 6 months. This field testing program resulted in the validation of both prototypes which meet the new French Ministry of Health recommendations and assures that the filtered water is fully ED 98-83 compliant. Their commercialization will be launched first in France in middle 2002.
Lead removal from drinking water - development and validation of point-of-use treatment devices
R. Sublet, A. Boireau, V.X. Yang, M.-O. Simonnot, C. Autugelle; Lead removal from drinking water - development and validation of point-of-use treatment devices. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 December 2002; 2 (5-6): 209–216. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2002.0171
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