Beijing is a megalopolis with a serious water shortage that has been further exacerbated by an unreasonable industrial water structure. This article uses an input-output method to calculate the water use coefficients in each industrial sector in Beijing and analyses the water use characteristics of the various industrial sectors. Then, an industry association index that represents the influence and sensitivity of sectors is combined with the water use characteristics to readjust the industrial structure with the objectives of water conservation and sustainable economic development. The results indicate that the agricultural water use coefficient is the highest and that the coefficients are generally higher for sectors in secondary industry than for those in tertiary industry. In addition, all coefficients display a downward trend. The water use multipliers vary widely among sectors. In secondary industry during the study period, the number of high water use sectors remained stable, the number of potentially high water use sectors increased and the number of general water use sectors decreased. A comprehensive analysis of the water use characteristics and industrial structure correlations could provide a reference for the optimal allocation of water resources.