Water stress and environmental concerns have driven research into the treatment of produced water. In this study, a combination of forward osmosis and photocatalyst system was used for simultaneous salt removal and treatment of produced water. Furthermore, biosurfactant as a novel draw solution and the three types of forward osmosis membranes (cellulose triacetate with and without titanium dioxide (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles) were investigated. The morphology and distribution of the TiO2 and TiO2/GO on the membrane surface were assessed by various analyses including field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and contact angle analysis. The results demonstrated that the reverse salt flux was only 0.2 g/m2 h. Moreover, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal efficiency in the cellulose triacetate with TiO2 and TiO2/GO membrane under UVC radiation was 62% and 78%, respectively, while the data obtained in visible light reached 80%. The use of TiO2 and TiO2/GO membranes significantly improved the permeability, water flux, photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and desalination of produced water.

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