Abstract

Contamination can intrude into urban water distribution systems through pipe leakage orifices or other deficiencies, which can create public health risks. Intrusion volume is a significant indicator of health risks when a pollution incident occurs. A pilot-scale platform was constructed to simulate the contamination intrusion through leakage holes caused by low or negative pressure events. The intrusion device was improved from the author's previous study by substituting the replaceable pipes in the main pipe for the side connecting pipe. Comparison between the two intrusion devices demonstrated that the intrusion device with the side connecting pipe may underestimate the intrusion volume. The orifice diameter range is extended to be 3–19.0 mm to analyze the effects of leakage sizes on the intrusion volume. The results show that the intrusion volume first increased and then decreased with increase of the orifice diameter. The calculated intrusion volume by the orifice discharge equation using the measured discharge coefficient is slightly different from the measured intrusion volume.

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