This paper presents a novel method to model water distribution systems (WDS) with insufficient pressure. Methods for the prediction of the performance of a WDS with pressure deficiencies are reviewed. The influence of imposed relationships between nodal heads and outflows is assessed and numerical results are given. A Newton-Raphson technique plus line search is employed for solving the governing equations. It is demonstrated that the approach offers superior results for the hydraulic performance of networks under abnormal operating conditions compared to demand-driven analysis-based models.

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