In 2000, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and California Urban Water Conservation Council partnered to study the merits of the United States National Plumbing Efficiency Standards. The study develops information on the value of the national plumbing standards, based on a nationwide survey of water supply utilities. Using base year 1999 water production levels, the study found forecasted water production due to the national plumbing code reduced by 5 per cent in 2010, climbing to 8 per cent water savings by 2020. Average utility savings of US$26 per person extrapolated to the United States as a whole amount to about US$7.5 billion in reduced infrastructure costs due to the national plumbing code. Including energy benefits from hot water savings, the total dollar savings to communities is higher at US$35 billion in the United States. This paper highlights an example methodology into the overall assessment of water and cost savings from water conservation programs. This methodology, more fully presented in the original report document, is particularly useful for water agencies quantifying benefits when seeking to avoid acquiring new source water supplys and/or defer building capital projects.
Benefits of the United States nationwide plumbing efficiency standards
M.A. Dickinson, L.A. Maddaus, W.O. Maddaus; Benefits of the United States nationwide plumbing efficiency standards. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 June 2003; 3 (3): 231–237. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2003.0031
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