Municipal treated wastewater has been tertiary treated in a pilot-scale rapid sand filter. The filtration process was improved by using polyaluminium coagulants. The sand-filtered water was further treated with one or two UV reactors. The quality changes of wastewater were measured with transmittance, total phosphorus, soluble phosphorus, and somatic coliphages, FRNA-coliphages, FC, enterococci and fecal clostridia. Sand filtration alone without coagulants improved slightly some physico-chemical parameters and it had almost no effect on content of microorganisms. If coagulants were used, the filtration was more effective. The reductions were 88-98% for microbial groups and 80% for total phosphorus. The wastewater would meet the requirements for bathing waters (2,000 FC/100 ml, EU, 1976). UV further improved the hygiene level; this type of treated wastewater could be used for unrestricted irrigation (2.2 TC/100 ml, US.EPA 1992). The improvement was better if coagulants were used. The price for tertiary treatment (filtration + UV) would have been 0.036 Euro/m3 according to prices in 2001 in 22 Mm3/a. The investment cost needed for the filtration unit was 0.020 Euro/m3 (6%/15a). Filtration with coagulants is recommended in spite of its costs, since the low transmittance of unfiltered wastewater impairs the efficiency of the UV treatment.
Costs of tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater by rapid sand filter with coagulants and UV
H. Heinonen-Tanski, P. Juntunen, R. Rajala, E. Haume, A. Niemelä; Costs of tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater by rapid sand filter with coagulants and UV. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 August 2003; 3 (4): 145–152. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2003.0056
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