Problems related to wastewater reclamation and reuse in the countries of the Mediterranean region are discussed with reference to growing conflicts among agriculture, tourism, cities and industries. All reuse options are strongly influenced by requested water quality, especially the microbiological one, and for this reason standards for reclaimed water have to be fixed having in mind both the safety of reuse and its practical and economical feasibility. The paper will discuss, as an example of a type of approach, also the regulations' evolution with reference to the Italian situation. Some considerations on the feasibility of current indicator bacteria will be done, making reference also to the bacterial re-growth potential associated with various disinfection agents and to the applicability of advanced methods capable to individuate partially damaged cells and therefore useful to a better evaluation of the possible re-growth phenomena.

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