Water is a fundamental necessity of life. Yet water supply and distribution networks the world over are old and lacking in adequate maintenance. Consequently they often leak as much water as they deliver and provide an unacceptable quality of service to the customer. In certain parts of the world, water is available only for a few hours of the day. The solution is to build a mathematical model to simulate the operation of the real network in all of its key elements and apply it to optimise its operation. To be of value, the results of the model must be compared with field data. This process is known as calibration and is an essential element in the construction of an accurate model. This paper outlines the optimum approach to building and calibrating a mathematical model and how it can be applied to automatic calibration systems.

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