The formation pattern of haloacetic acids (HAAs) was investigated using phenol as a model precursor of HAAs, and the oxidation by-products formed from phenol ozonation, such as hydroquinone, catechol, glyoxal, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid, were also chlorinated to measure the HAAs formation potential (HAAFP). Of these, phenol showed the highest reactivity with chlorine, yielding the most HAAFP. Even though HAAFP of the tested by-products was lower than that of phenol, it was confirmed that all by-products can act as the precursor of HAAs. Regarding the ozonation of phenol-containing water, the efficiency of ozone in controlling HAAs can be reduced by the formation of oxidation by-products. When comparing conditions for pH 7 and 3, the ozonation for pH 7 was more effective in removing the overall HAA precursors than the ozonation for pH 3. This result was attributed to complete oxidation by the production of the secondary oxidant, such as the OH radical (OH·) from ozone decay, and ionization of phenol.

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