Technological applications aiming at the exploitation of the natural sources appear in all ancient civilizations. The unique phenomenon in the ancient Greek civilization is that technological needs triggered physical explanations of natural phenomena, thus enabling the foundation of philosophy and science. Among these, the study of hydrometeorological phenomena had a major role. This study begins with the Ionian philosophers in the seventh century BC, continues in classical Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, and advances and expands through the entire Greek world up to the end of Hellenistic period. Many of the theories developed by ancient Greeks are erroneous according to modern views. However, many elements in Greek exegeses of hydrometeorological processes, such as evaporation and condensation of vapour, creation of clouds, hail, snow and rainfall, and evolution of hydrological cycle, are impressive even today.

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