Since their very beginnings, organized societies have been concerned with the preservation and improvement of their environment and natural resources as these were the basis of their wellbeing and survival. In pursuing this goal, many civilizations have constructed admirable technical and infrastructural works. To most of us, however, the society that stands out for its particular preoccupation and special widespread achievements in this field is the Roman Empire which actively demonstrated great interest for its cities and the providing for their everyday basic livelihood needs. The creation of most urban centres was combined with the construction of aqueducts, water supply and wastewater systems. During the Roman occupation period (200 BC–300 AD) of the Hellenic world, many cities within the region expanded and new urban centres were created. Substantial steps were taken to upgrade the urban landscape and to improve their living conditions. This was connected with water supply and wastewater systems, comprising aqueducts, water towers and underground pipe systems. The investigation of the criteria that determined engineers' design choices for aqueducts, methods and processes of construction, techniques and materials used - as these are revealed through the archaeological excavations and relics - testify to the environmental approach and the maintenance perception of the Roman period.

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