“Land treatment” refers to the application of wastewater to the soil to achieve treatment and to meet irrigation needs of the vegetation. Application of wastewater to the land was the first practice used to protect public health and control environmental pollution. This technology has gone through different stages of development with time but it was not until 1840s when the basic principles of this technology started to establish. The use of land treatment for wastewater treatment declined after the development of conventional treatment plants but a renewed interested occurred after the passage of Clean Water Act and especially, during the last two decades. Currently, its application has been expanded in the management of various types of wastewaters including dairy, meat, industrial effluents as well as and polluted water sources. It is recognized as the ideal technology for rural communities, clusters of homes and small industrial units due to low energy demands and low operation and maintenance costs. Furthermore, in conjunction with biomass production can contribute in the control of climate change. A brief historical overview along with an introduction to the fundamental processes the current trends and the future prospects are provided in this section.

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