Designing a commercial UF/MF system is an exercise in compromise. Selecting a high flux reduces capex by minimizing the membrane area required, but increases operating costs due to the increased chemical cleaning frequency, higher waste disposal volumes, and higher operating pressure. Most commercial systems are designed to run at fluxes significantly above the critical flux, so a degree of fouling and a reliance on chemical cleaning is inherent to the design.
This paper examines the relationship between flux and membrane fouling rate through a review of experimental field data. The analysis shows that fouling rate increases exponentially with flux, with a function dependent upon the characteristics of the feed. The paper then presents the results of a cost optimization study in which Total Water Cost (TWC) is evaluated as a function of feed source and plant size for different CIP cleaning frequencies.
The minimum TWC occurs in all cases for CIP frequencies of between 1/week and 1/month. Smaller plants with low fouling feeds have an optimum near 1 CIP/week using a relatively high flux design. In contrast, feeds with higher fouling propensity, and medium or large plant sizes have a TWC optimum close to 1 CIP/month, and should use a lower design flux. It is suggested that the flux corresponding to the TWC optimum should be designated the sustainable flux.