The recent supply of large volumes of seawater desalinated water in Israel prompted both the development of new water quality standards and the development of a novel post treatment process, designed to comply with the new standards at a cost effective price. The new process is designed to supply water with alkalinity, Ca2 +  and calcium carbonate precipitation potential values as required in the new criteria, along with the addition of a threshold Mg2 +  concentration recently recommended by the WHO. The current paper describes the process in general, and focuses in particular on attaining these criteria while maintaining a low total hardness concentration (120 mg/L as CaCO3). The process is based on dissolving calcite using H2SO4 and replacing the excess calcium ions generated in this process by Mg2 +  ions (using a specific cation exchange resin—Amberlite) and by Na+ (using a second cation exchange resin—chabazite, from the zeolite group). Once exhausted the resins are re-loaded with Mg2 +  and Na+ by the brine generated in the RO process, thus no unwanted brines are generated. A case study is presented for which operational costs were approximated at 0.034 $US/m3 product water.

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