The performance of bio-sand filters (BSF) should be monitored periodically to ensure the quality of water produced for the safety of consumers. An engineering design of BSF is proposed to achieve the desired efficacy of the treatment system. Accurate designs to achieve bio-sand filtration are not available in detail for most BSFs since present physical models were not originally able to calculate design's parameters. This paper develops the mathematical models to calculate the depth of sand filter and water velocity in operating the proposed BSF especially to remove organic and suspended matter simultaneously. Parameters in the equations are all physically meaningful, experimental data validation shows the equations remained accurate. The baseline design's parameters are analyzed to contribute to bio-sand filtration process technology. The filtration rates and depths of sand filter proposed in designing of the BSF system are justified.
Empirical models of bio-sand filter to calculate the design parameters
Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky, Norshuhaila Mohamed Sunar, Ab Aziz Abd Latiff, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim; Empirical models of bio-sand filter to calculate the design parameters. Water Supply 1 December 2009; 9 (6): 723–734. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2009.228
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