Abstract

Snow characteristics were measured in the comprehensive experimental field and the results of a detailed analysis of physical snow properties indicated that snowpack characteristics are affected by a variety of climate parameters. The average liquid water content of snow increased from 0.5% to 3.5%. The bottom snow layer exhibited larger parameter variations than those in the surface and middle layers. The average snow porosity was 72.3% for the entire snowpack, and the changing rate of porosity ranged from 4% to 19% during the accumulation period and from 7% to 25% during the snowmelt period. The porosity of the bottom layer displayed the fastest decline and the largest range. The air temperature, snow temperature and solar radiation showed significant positive correlations with the liquid water content of the snow, and the calculated correlation coefficients were all above 0.9. In addition, relative humidity and temperature were negatively correlated. All meteorological factors studied affected the melting capacity of snow to varying degrees. This study included the design and implementation of snow experiments on bare land under natural conditions as well as measurements of snow parameters in detailed snowpack layers and explained the characteristics of snow parameters combined with meteorological factors.

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