Abstract

One of the hydraulic phenomena that mainly occurs during the water withdrawal process of channels is the formation of vortices that can cause many problems for the hydro-mechanical facilities of intakes. In the current study, classical models and meta model approaches (i.e. Support Vector Machine and Gene Expression Programming) were applied to evaluate the impact of pipe diameter and hydraulic condition changes in prediction of the critical submergence depth ratio in horizontal intakes. In this regard, two types of critical submergence experiments, based on bottom clearance, were considered (i.e. c = 0 and c = d/2, in which c and d are the bottom clearance and diameter of the intake, respectively). Different models were developed and tested using experimental data series. The results indicated that in modeling the critical submergence depth ratio, meta model approaches led to better predictions compared to the classical approaches. It was observed that the developed models for the state of c = d/2 yielded better results. According to the outcome of sensitivity analysis, the ratio of velocities in the intake pipe and channel (Vi/Vc) had a key role in the modeling. It was also found that intake pipe diameter affected the critical submergence depth ratio in intake pipes. Increasing pipe diameter caused a decrease in model accuracy.

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