Long-term runoff forecasting has the characteristics of a long forecast period, which can be widely applied in environmental protection, hydropower operation, flood prevention and waterlogging management, water transport management, and optimal allocation of water resources. Many models and methods are currently used for runoff prediction, and data-driven models for runoff prediction are now mainstream methods, but their prediction accuracy cannot meet the needs of production departments. To this end, the present research starts with this method and, based on a support vector machine (SVM), it introduces ant colony optimization (ACO) to optimize its penalty coefficient C, Kernel function parameter g, and insensitivity coefficient p, to construct a data-driven ACO-SVM model. The validity of the method is confirmed by taking the Minjiang River Basin as an example. The results show that the runoff predicted by use of ACO-SVM is more accurate than that of the default parameter SVM and the Bayesian method.