This paper describes a major program of research by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) into urban water, wastewater and stormwater services. The intent of the program has been to identify opportunities for achieving more sustainable urban water services. The term “sustainable” has been interpreted to mean improvements in environmental and economic performance of systems which maintain inter- and intragenerational equity. It is evident from the conclusions of the feasibility stage of the Urban Water Program that such opportunities exist, particularly with regard to the design and configuration of water and wastewater systems. The structure of the UWP is described and examples of critical outcomes given.