We have demonstrated a novel backwash cleaning technique of direct osmosis (DO)-high salinity (HS) for reverse osmosis (RO) fouling control in water reuse. An UF-RO pilot system was continuously (24-h) operated on site with the secondary effluent as the feed over 4 months. The RO plant was run at 75% recovery and at the membrane flux of 17 l m−2 h−1 (LMH) to simulate the full scale NEWater production when DO-HS treatment was conducted once per day and five times per week during the last two months. Permeability of RO membranes as a function of elapse time of the pilot operation was monitored and compared over different durations. Impact of DO-HS treatment on RO product quality in terms of TOC and conductivity was investigated. It was concluded that the DO-HS treatment preliminarily demonstrated a benefit to low RO fouling rate by 2.5–4 times in 30–60 days without interruption on RO operation and impact on RO product quality.

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