Difference in behaviors of F-specific DNA and RNA bacteriophages during coagulation–rapid sand filtration and coagulation–microfiltration (MF) processes were investigated by using river water spiked with F-specific DNA bacteriophage f1 and RNA bacteriophage f2. Because the particle characteristics of f1 (filamentous) and f2 (spherical) are quite different and the surface charge of f1 in the river water was slightly more negative than that of f2, the removal ratios of f1 were approximately 1-log lower than the removal ratio of f2 after any treatment process used in the present study. This result indicates that the behaviors of the two bacteriophages during the treatment processes were different, and that the removal of f1 by the combination of coagulation and filtration processes was more difficult than that of f2. The removal ratios for f1 and f2 were approximately 3-log and 4-log, respectively, in the coagulation–rapid sand filtration process, and 6-log and 7-log, respectively, in the coagulation–MF filtration process. Therefore, as expected, the coagulation–MF process appears to be more effective than the coagulation–rapid sand filtration process for the removal of not only spherical viruses but also filamentous viruses.

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