With the development of society, water resources are gradually scarce and water pollution is becoming increasingly serious, which would seriously restrict the development of the urban economy. In response to the current problems of water scarcity and severe water pollution, this article will study the key points of urban environmental design development based on ecological concepts. This article will also use ecological concepts to divide water function zones based on different pollution-carrying capacities in different regions, which can be mainly divided into two levels. In the experimental analysis section, the Xiongan New Area will be analyzed. This article randomly selected three regions in the Xiongan New Area and studied the utilization rate of various types of water in these regions. The pollution capacity and main water resources of each region in the functional area were planned and designed. Through experiments, it can be found that based on ecological concepts, it is beneficial to improve the pollutant-carrying capacity of each functional area and reduce the total amount of ammonia nitrogen.

  • The average utilization rates of these three types of water in 10 administrative regions were 93.01, 93.3, and 93.11%, respectively. Based on ecological concepts, it can help better water resources planning and improve the city's pollution capacity.

Water resources are strategic resources that society relies on for survival, which are related to people's livelihoods and sustainable economic and social development (Zhu et al. 2022a, 2022b; Wu et al. 2023). Water resources protection planning is an important measure for the development of agricultural yield production and food security (Li et al. 2021a; Bockstiegel et al. 2023). Scientific formulation of water resources protection plans is an important guarantee for achieving sustainable utilization of water resources and promoting sustainable economic, social, and environmental development (Zhao et al. 2020; Zhu et al. 2022a, 2022b). Currently, due to the scarcity of water resources and the low per capita share of water resources, the protection and utilization of water resources have always been the main research topic of relevant departments (Xu et al. 2022a, 2022b; Yuan et al. 2023). The academic community has conducted extensive research on the protection and utilization of water resources, usually focusing on conserving water resources to protect and utilize the water environment. Previous research has remained at the theoretical level, with overly general analysis that makes it difficult to achieve good application results in practical applications, and there are also shortcomings. In order to make up for the shortcomings, this article will actively carry out water resources planning and design based on ecological theory and further improve the utilization rate of water resources. This can improve the pollution capacity of water bodies, reduce pollutants in water bodies, and better protect water resources in urban water conservancy landscapes (Gao et al. 2023; Qiu et al. 2023).

As the increasing development of analytical theory, computational methods, data collection and output methods, or planning results, research on water resources planning and protection has undergone rapid changes and achieved some research results. Yu et al. (2018) expounded on the general idea and strategy of groundwater protection and management in China from the aspects of the control of over-exploitation, the protection of water quality, the protection of the water ecosystem and the implementation of the strictest water management system. He provided reference for the protection of groundwater resources in some areas due to long-term disorderly mining, poor management, and insufficient protection efforts. Borgomeo et al. (2018) believed that risk-based water resources planning is based on the premise that the investment of water resources managers should achieve the marginal benefit of reducing risks, so as to explore the methods that may enhance the robustness of water resources systems under different risk attitudes. Bhave et al. (2018) developed an iterative multi-method model that includes scene generation and water resources modeling. The water resources model was validated using measured runoff and the results were satisfactory. Hall et al. (2020) proposed a blueprint for water resources planning, using system simulations to simulate the frequency, duration, and severity of water shortages in current and future plans. He explored the trade-off between these risk indicators and the cost of alternative solutions by using multi-objective optimization tools, and used sensitivity analysis to determine goals and solutions that can achieve tolerable risks robustly. Milaszewski (2021) used the conditional valuation method to assess the willingness to pay of residents to improve the quality of water resources in their communities, aiming to reduce the process of nutrient enrichment in the ocean. However, these scholars' research on water resources planning and protection is not comprehensive enough, and the use of ecological concepts can achieve better results in water resources planning and protection research.

Water is the source of life, and human life and production activities cannot be done without water, which is a special resource. Water has become the first natural resource, the most irreplaceable natural material resource, and the most fundamental and important resource for human survival and development (Li & Hui 2018; Sutanudjaja et al. 2018). However, due to the current problems with water resources, water resources protection and planning have become an important task, directly related to the sustainable development of the national economy and society. Therefore, this article will study the planning and protection of water resources based on ecological concepts. Through experiments, it can be found that using ecological concepts for water resources planning in urban water conservancy landscapes can effectively improve the utilization rate of various types of water. It can also divide water functions and allocate water resources in various functional areas in a reasonable manner.

Ecological concept

The ecological concept refers to the concept of human ecological protection of the natural and social environment, which usually involves humans, the natural environment, and the social environment (Wainwright et al. 2018). Ecological design is the embodiment of ecological concepts in design, also known as green design or environmental design. Ecological concepts can be integrated into water resources planning, guided by scientific thinking and theory, to carry out relevant water function planning and design, and to pursue harmonious coexistence between humans and nature.

Urban water conservancy landscape

Water conservancy is to guide, regulate, protect, develop, and manage natural waters such as oceans, rivers, lakes, and groundwater by using artificial or natural means, with the purpose of reducing and preventing natural disasters such as floods and droughts and meeting social needs (Ren et al. 2018; Wang & Wang 2022). Urban water conservancy refers to the reduction of water conservancy-related projects in order to achieve urban drainage, flood control, and sewage treatment goals (Liu et al. 2023). Urban water conservancy is a research object focused on urban construction and development, which can better balance the relationship between urban water conservancy and the environment and bring a lot of benefits (Zhou et al. 2021). The water conservancy landscape is developed by utilizing the construction of water conservancy projects to unleash the role of the water conservancy landscape (Li & Wang 2020). The completeness of the water conservancy landscape is reflected in not only meeting the functions that local water conservancy projects should have, but also creating a good artificial environment for people to watch and relax (Xu et al. 2022a, 2022b). People may develop special skills in different activities. Currently, the popularization of water conservancy landscapes has increased the country's emphasis on water conservancy landscapes. In the context of ecological civilization policies, the goal of integrating the circular economy, green economy, and the development of green tourism is an urgent need for the public. At present, many places are building water conservancy landscape areas, but the research on water conservancy landscape planning is not very in-depth. Without experience, it is easy to fail to understand the principles of water conservancy landscape planning, that is, lack of decoration, ecology, humanization, and other aspects.

The expression for the cost of constructing urban water sources and water supply facilities is as follows:
formula
(1)
where represents the scale of the existing water plant; is the construction cost per unit water supply of the newly built water plant; is the fixed cost of building a new water plant. is the total cost, is the previous water plant scale, and is the worker expense.

Water resources protection planning

Water resources protection planning refers to the protection and management of water resources, usually based on ensuring a good cycle of water resources and water ecology within the basin, with the main goal of achieving sustainable utilization of water resources (Rivers-Moore et al. 2021). Water resources protection planning is a special type of water body planning. It can specifically plan the water quality of different water functional areas by investigating the current situation of water quality and predicting future water quality. Water resources planning and protection can also establish environmental goals based on functional requirements, calculate corresponding water resources pollutants, and control the total discharge of water pollution in relevant areas. The purpose of water resources protection planning is to protect water quality, reasonably utilize water resources, and propose various control measures and approaches through planning to prevent water quality from being polluted. This can satisfy the main functions of water bodies and fully utilize their multifunctional functions (Manous & Stakhiv 2021).

The formula for calculating the total amount of urban water shortage:
formula
(2)

In the formula, represents the water demand of i types of water sources required for j purposes in the region; represents the importance weight of the relative water shortage for k purposes in the total water shortage in the main urban area.

The sum of the differences between the water quality of the water supply source and the water quality of the usage configuration is the smallest:
formula
(3)

In the formula, represents the water quality level of the th water source; is the minimum water quality level matched for the th use.

Urban environmental design refers to the comprehensive and comprehensive urban environmental design guided by scientific design ideas and concepts, which needs to meet a lot of needs (Sachdev 2019; Fanti et al. 2020).

  • (1)

    Optimize the urban ecological environment

The development of cities would cause certain damage to the ecological environment. In recent years, various environmental pollution has seriously affected the quality of the urban environment. Therefore, under the guidance of ecological concepts, urban environmental design must include comprehensive management of environmental pollution. Among them, the lack of water resources and water pollution would seriously hinder the construction of ecological cities. Cities should actively promote the construction of ecological engineering under the guidance of ecological concepts, strengthen the treatment of water resources pollution, and better protect water resources.

  • (2)

    Strengthen urban greening construction and improve ecological environment quality

In the process of urban development, it is necessary to strengthen greening, expand the area of internal greening, build safety belts around urban facilities, and add a touch of green to the city. It can also beautify the environment, purify the city, reduce noise, and save water. With the support of ecological concepts, cities should plant various green plants according to the local natural environment, and reasonably use plants such as grasslands, shrubs, and trees to build multi-level three-dimensional green belts. This can create more green landscapes and optimize the layout of urban green spaces. It not only creates a coordinated and unified green environment, but also provides comfortable conditions for the survival and migration of animals in cities and suburbs.

Division of water functional areas

The economic and social development of water quality is conducive to the rational development, utilization, and protection of water resources. Water function zones can also be specifically divided into two levels, namely primary and secondary functional zones. After the division of functional zones is determined, the pollution capacity of each functional zone at different periods can be calculated based on the corresponding water quality standards and water self-purification capacity. The flow chart of water resources planning based on ecological concepts is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1

Flow chart of water resources planning based on ecological concept.

Figure 1

Flow chart of water resources planning based on ecological concept.

Close modal

Water function zone pollutant capacity

The pollutant-carrying capacity of a water body refers to the maximum amount of pollutants it can withstand before its function is damaged. The capacity to absorb pollutants is related to many aspects; therefore, the maximum amount of pollution that a water body can accommodate is the basis for conducting a total amount control plan for water resources pollutant emissions (Singh & Goldsmith 2020). For the calculation of anti-pollution capacity, in order to simplify the complexity of anti-pollution capacity calculation caused by the distribution of sewage outlets, the distribution of sewage outlets in the functional area was generalized and various sewage outlets were analyzed. For the discharge of pollutants in the river section, it can be converted into the discharge of pollutants from one sewage outlet.

Due to the fact that pollutants are generated by waste, the amount of waste emissions is directly related to the water consumption allocated by various departments. According to the principle of material balance, the relationship between waste discharge and water consumption is as follows:
formula
(4)
where represents the total amount of j pollutants in the wastewater discharged by the i water department in the sub-district. is the coefficient of sewage discharge from the i water department in sub-district; is the concentration of j pollutants in the wastewater discharged by the i water department in the sub-area.

Based on the ecological economic value, it can be found that the quality of water resources is actually an ecological economic wealth with very high-value benefits (Baral et al. 2018). With the increasing impact of human socio-economic activities on water quality, the pollution level of water resources is gradually increasing, leading to a decrease in the value and benefits of water resources. According to the division of water functional zones and the requirements of water quality standards, the maximum amount of pollutants that can be accepted per unit time in a certain water area can meet the conditions of different design water quantities while considering both location and method.

The scope of the water function zone can be a completely uniform mixed water body, or it can be a river section with relatively low pollutants. The specific expression is as follows:
formula
(5)
where is the value of water environment quality loss in the sub-region.
The capacity of water bodies to absorb pollutants is based on water resources quality objectives and water dilution, which can be expressed as:
formula
(6)
where represents the water body's pollutant-carrying capacity, represents the water resources quality standard, and represents the natural background value of pollutants in the water body.
The annual cost of water treatment measures can be calculated by the following equation:
formula
(7)
where is the annual cost of sewage treatment measures.

Protection plan for important water sources

Groundwater resources protection

Protecting groundwater resources mainly refers to controlling the extraction of groundwater (Coyte et al. 2018; Lezzaik & Milewski 2018). The utilization, protection, and restoration plan of groundwater should be designed based on the specific storage and protection requirements of urban groundwater, mainly including the following contents: (1) Based on the hydrogeological conditions of the city, the recharge, runoff, and discharge of groundwater can be analyzed. It is possible to investigate and evaluate the current situation of groundwater development and utilization, and make overall arrangements based on water resources allocation and groundwater development, utilization, and protection. The overall deployment plan can be used to plan the overall goals of groundwater protection in different functional areas, including the total amount control goals for groundwater development and utilization, water quality protection goals, and ecologically reasonable water level control goals. (2) The functions of groundwater supply, emergency storage, and environmental maintenance can be coordinated. Based on the specific goals of groundwater protection, plans, and strategies for the development, utilization, and potential use of groundwater in various regions can be proposed.

Protection of drinking water sources

It needs to strengthen the construction of signs and warning facilities for drinking water source areas and protected areas (Kloosterman et al. 2021). By constructing warning signs for drinking water source areas next to urban water conservancy landscapes, the construction and improvement of drinking water source areas have been completed. It is also necessary to rectify the pollution sources of drinking water sources. Specific pollution control regulations can be introduced to punish illegal activities, and pollution discharge outlets can be classified and regulated according to the regulations. It needs to cut off and divert sewage from a single source such as enterprises and municipal facilities. It requires interception and diversion of natural rivers and drainage stations.

The quantitative expression for the carrying capacity of urban water resources is as follows:
formula
(8)
where is the available water resources, is the agricultural water consumption, and is the ecological water consumption.

Overview of the study area

Xiongan New Area belongs to the subtropical monsoon climate. The climate is cold in winter and hot in summer. There is sufficient rainfall in summer and autumn. The rainy season is mostly concentrated in July and August, and cold wave weather occurs in winter. The annual average temperature is 22 °C, with extremely high temperatures reaching 42 °C and extremely low temperatures below −15 °C. Average annual precipitation is 1,100 mm, with a maximum daily rainfall of 400 mm and an annual relative humidity of 73%. The minimum relative humidity is 20%, and the annual daily illumination is approximately 2,176.2 h. The distribution map of local river network levels in the Xiongan New Area is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2

Distribution map of local river network levels in the Xiongan New Area.

Figure 2

Distribution map of local river network levels in the Xiongan New Area.

Close modal

The total amount of water resources in the Xiongan New Area is generally abundant, but the per capita share of water resources is relatively insufficient. The water environment pollution in some regions is relatively serious, and the prospects for water resources utilization are worrying.

The total amount of water resources is the sum of surface and groundwater resources, and the W area is generally divided into three districts D1, D2, and D3. The surface runoff and the total distribution of water resources in districts are summarized in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

Table 1

Surface runoff in the Xiongan New Area

PartitionCalculate area Run-off flow (hundred million/)Run-off depth(mm)Natural run-off flow at different frequencies (hundred million/)
25%60%
D1 429 1.539 183.4 2.351 1.307 
D2 307 0.482 181.7 0.507 0.324 
D3 156 0.427 172.1 0.469 0.226 
Total 892 2.448  3.327 1.857 
PartitionCalculate area Run-off flow (hundred million/)Run-off depth(mm)Natural run-off flow at different frequencies (hundred million/)
25%60%
D1 429 1.539 183.4 2.351 1.307 
D2 307 0.482 181.7 0.507 0.324 
D3 156 0.427 172.1 0.469 0.226 
Total 892 2.448  3.327 1.857 
Table 2

Total distribution of water resources

Different types of water resourcesD1D2D3Total
Surface water availability (hundred million/1.437 0.427 0.379 2.243 
Groundwater availability (hundred million/2.071 1.129 1.026 4.226 
Reusable amount 0.773 0.372 0.341 1.486 
Available water resources (hundred million/2.735 1.184 1.064 4.983 
The total amount of water resources available at different frequencies (hundred million/25% 2.417 1.081 0.992 4.49 
60% 2.089 0.913 0.837 3.839 
Different types of water resourcesD1D2D3Total
Surface water availability (hundred million/1.437 0.427 0.379 2.243 
Groundwater availability (hundred million/2.071 1.129 1.026 4.226 
Reusable amount 0.773 0.372 0.341 1.486 
Available water resources (hundred million/2.735 1.184 1.064 4.983 
The total amount of water resources available at different frequencies (hundred million/25% 2.417 1.081 0.992 4.49 
60% 2.089 0.913 0.837 3.839 

Experimental analysis

The Xiongan New Area covers a very wide range, with many administrative regions and townships, most of which have water conservancy landscape construction. In the construction of a water landscape, it is necessary to attach great importance to the protection and planning of water resources, ensuring that water resources can be optimally allocated and better protected in urban construction. Based on ecological concepts, protecting and planning water resources can better achieve water resources protection and increase the satisfaction rate of residents in various townships. In this paper, the regions (D1, D2, and D3) are considered to investigate the satisfaction rate of water resource protection planning. This article compares the survey results with water resource protection planning based on green and low-carbon concepts and sustainable development concepts (Yang et al. 2023). The specific comparison results are shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3

Comparison of resident satisfaction rates in water resource protection planning based on three different concepts.

Figure 3

Comparison of resident satisfaction rates in water resource protection planning based on three different concepts.

Close modal

As shown in Figure 3, water resources are planned and protected based on three different concepts, and the optimal satisfaction rate of residents in each administrative region is based on ecological concepts for water resource planning and protection. Ecological concepts can be used for water resource plans in urban water conservancy landscapes, which can better plan and allocate water resources from an ecological perspective, allowing for a more reasonable allocation of water resources. Among them, the satisfaction rate of residents in each administrative region for water resources planning based on ecological concepts is over 92.5%, and the average satisfaction rate of the regions is 93.93%. The resident satisfaction rates of water resources protection planning based on green and low-carbon concepts and sustainable development concepts are below 90.2 and 91.6%, respectively. The average satisfaction rates of the two are 5.14 and 4.66% lower than those of water resources planning based on ecological concepts, respectively. The satisfaction rate of water resources planning based on ecological concepts is the lowest in D1, only 92.51%, but it is still 3.32 and 3.14% higher than the satisfaction rate of water resources protection planning based on green and low-carbon concepts and sustainable development concepts (Zhao et al. 2023a, 2023b). Based on the low-carbon concept, the satisfaction rate of water resources planning in D2 is the highest, with 90.18%. It is still 3.38% lower than the satisfaction rate based on ecological concepts. The satisfaction rate of water resources planning based on the concept of sustainable development is the highest in D3, with 91.52%, but it is still 1.64% lower than the satisfaction rate based on ecological concepts.

The water function is divided into two levels in the previous text, with the first level function divided into four categories and the second level function divided into seven categories. This article studies seven categories of secondary functional areas. This paper will study the change in sewage content in these seven types of water function areas, mainly chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen. Planning and protecting water resources based on ecological concepts can effectively control the total amount of water pollutants, reduce COD and ammonia nitrogen, and help improve the regional pollution capacity (Li et al. 2021b). This article compares the total amount of COD and ammonia nitrogen obtained after water resources planning based on ecological concepts (after the experiment) with the total amount before ecological concepts (before the experiment). The results are shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4

Comparison of total COD (a) and ammonia nitrogen levels (b) in different water functional zones before and after the experiment.

Figure 4

Comparison of total COD (a) and ammonia nitrogen levels (b) in different water functional zones before and after the experiment.

Close modal
As shown in Figure 4, the total amount of COD and ammonia nitrogen extracted from different water functional areas after the experiment was significantly reduced compared to before. This also indicates that water resources planning and protection based on ecological concepts can effectively control the total amount of water pollutants and improve the pollution-carrying capacity of different water functional areas (Lin et al. 2021; Nong et al. 2023). As shown in Figure 4(a), the total amount of COD in the pollution control area was the highest before and after the experiment, with 1,859.4 and 1,679.5 tons, respectively. After the experiment, the pollutant COD decreased by 179.9 tons compared to before the experiment; The total amount of COD before and after the experiment was the lowest in the drinking water source area, with 579.6 and 459.5 tons, respectively. After the experiment, the pollutant COD decreased by 120.1 tons compared to before, which is because the pollution control area is mainly used for pollution discharge. So the total amount of pollutants is very large, and the drinking water source area is related to drinking water safety, so there are relatively few pollutants. In Figure 4(a), the agricultural water use area with the largest difference in COD before and after the experiment showed a decrease of 214.6 tons in COD compared to before the experiment. As shown in Figure 5(b), the total amount of ammonia nitrogen before and after the experiment was the highest in the pollution control area, with 1,901.4 and 1,799.8 tons, respectively. After the experiment, the amount of pollutant ammonia nitrogen decreased by 101.6 tons compared to before. The total amount of ammonia nitrogen before and after the experiment was the lowest in the drinking water source area, with 489.7 and 369.8 tons, respectively. After the experiment, the amount of pollutant ammonia nitrogen decreased by 119.9 tons compared to before the experiment. In Figure 4(b), the industrial water area had the largest difference in ammonia nitrogen content before and after the experiment, and the ammonia nitrogen content decreased by 300 tons compared to before the experiment. This can be because using ecological concepts for water resources planning can greatly assist industrial zones in pollutant treatment and improve sewage treatment capacity.
Figure 5

Comparison of different water utilization rates after planning water resources with (a) ecological concept and (b) sustainable development concept.

Figure 5

Comparison of different water utilization rates after planning water resources with (a) ecological concept and (b) sustainable development concept.

Close modal

Planning and protecting water resources in urban landscapes is aimed at improving the utilization rate of water resources and helping to better protect water resources. Based on ecological concepts, planning and protecting water resources effectively improves the utilization rate of water resources. In order to further reflect on the role of ecological concepts in this regard, this article compares them with water resources protection planning based on sustainable development concepts. The research subjects were three selected administrative regions in the Xiongan New Area mentioned above, and the utilization rates of domestic water, ecological water, and agricultural water were studied (Figure 5).

As shown in Figure 5, water resources protection planning based on ecological concepts can improve the utilization rate of various types of water, helping to better plan and allocate water resources. As shown in Figure 5(a), the utilization rates of domestic water, ecological water, and agricultural water in each administrative region of the ecological concept-based water resources protection plan are above 91.2, 92.1, and 91.7%, respectively. The average utilization rates of these three types of water in the regions are 93.01, 93.3, and 93.11%, respectively. As shown in Figure 5(b), the utilization rates of domestic water, ecological water, and agricultural water in each administrative region of the water resources protection plan based on the concept of sustainable development are below 90.6%, below 89.5%, and below 90%, respectively. The average utilization rates of these three types of water in the regions are 88.16, 87.52, and 88.29%, respectively. Compared to the ecological concept-based water resources planning, the average utilization rates of domestic water, ecological water, and agricultural water are 4.86, 5.78, and 4.82% lower, respectively.

Water is the source of life and the carrier of energy flow and material circulation in the ecosystem. With the continuous advancement of the construction of water resources protection and river health security systems, as well as the implementation of the strictest water resources management system, the concept and connotation of water resources protection are constantly being enriched and expanded. In the face of the increasingly severe water resources problems, it is imperative to promote the sustainable development and utilization of water resources in the process of vigorously promoting ecological environment protection. In order to further reflect the new concept and new requirements of water resources protection, water resources protection planning should be based on the summary of previous experience and the application of new ideas and technologies to build a more sound water resources protection planning system. The water resources protection planning system based on the ecological concept takes the good circulation between the watershed ecology as the starting point and ensures the safety of life, production, and ecological water use, so as to improve the capacity of sewage treatment and improve the utilization rate of water resources. Technology to strengthen advanced equipment and technology research and development and raw, state-level intensify forest resources management, realize the sustainable development and utilization of water resources, actively carry out the planning and design of water resources, further to better to improve the utilization rate of water resources, improve the ability of water pollution, reduce pollutants in the water, let the water resources in urban water conservancy landscape can be better protected.

All relevant data are included in the paper or its Supplementary Information.

The authors declare there is no conflict.

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